A. Speiser (Math Annahlen 110 (1934) 514-521) proved that the Riemann Hypothesis is equivalent to the non-vanishing of the derivative in the left-half of the critical strip Levinson and Montgomery [MR 54 #5135] gave an alternative, quantitative version of this result which led to Levinson's [MR 58 #27837] discovery of his method for counting zeros on the critical line. He then proceeded to prove that at least 1/3 of the zeros of are on the critical line.

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